Imperial Cleaning

Escort Vannes

At the end of the 19th century, several seaside resorts were created along the coast and villas and hotels were built in historicist , Art Nouveau , and later in the Art Deco styles.

"Morbihan, foot gagnant !"

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Le Golfe s'offre à vous, rien qu'à vous! Découvrez les vacances en septembre. This account was supported by the Counts of Anjou, who claimed descent from a Roman soldier [b] expelled from Lower Brittany by Conan on Magnus's orders. Regardless of the truth of this story, Brythonic British Celtic settlement probably increased during the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries.

Scholars such as Léon Fleuriot have suggested a two-wave model of migration from Britain which saw the emergence of an independent Breton people and established the dominance of the Brythonic Breton language in Armorica. Although the details remain confused, these colonies consisted of related and intermarried dynasties which repeatedly unified as by the 7th-century Saint Judicaël before splintering again according to Celtic inheritance practices.

The area was finally consolidated in the s under Nominoe in resistance to Frankish control. The Alans were placed front and centre, opposite the Huns. The Armoricans supplied archers who attacked the Huns' front lines during the main battle and thwarted Attila's night assault on the Roman camp with a hail of arrows "like rain".

After the battle was won, Aetius sent the Alans to Armorica and Galicia. The late 5th century Brittonic leader Riothamus received correspondence from the eminent Roman jurist Sidonius Apollinaris and was called "King of the Britons" by Jordanes.

Some suggest that he was a Breton, though others believe that he was from Britain, pointing to the passage that he arrived in the land of the Biturges "by way of Ocean", which would hardly have been efficient or required for a Breton. Both historians describe Riothamus's losing battle against King Euric of the Visigoths at Déols around the year In response to a plea from the Roman Emperor Anthemius , Riothamus had led twelve thousand men to establish a military presence in Bourges in central Gaul, but was betrayed by Arvandus , the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, and subsequently ambushed by Euric's army.

According to Breton king-lists, Riotham survived and reigned as Prince of Domnonia until his death sometime between and , though this may have been a different person. At the beginning of the medieval era, Brittany was divided between three kingdoms, Domnonea , Cornouaille and Broërec. These realms eventually merged into a single state during the 9th century.

His son Erispoe secured the independence of the new kingdom of Brittany and won the Battle of Jengland against Charles the Bald. The Bretons won another war in , and the kingdom reached then its maximum extent: Brittany was heavily attacked by the Vikings at the beginning of the 10th century. The kingdom lost its eastern territories, including Normandy and Anjou , and the county of Nantes was given to Fulk I of Anjou in Several Breton lords helped William the Conqueror to invade England and received large estates there e.

William's double-second cousin Alan Rufus and the latter's brother Brian of Brittany. Some of these lords were powerful rivals. Medieval Brittany was far from being a united nation. The French king maintained envoys in Brittany, alliances contracted by local lords often overlapped and there was no specific Breton consciousness.

For example, Brittany replaced Latin with French as its official language in the 13th century, years before France did so itself, and the Breton language never had any formal status. The foreign policy of the duchy changed many times; the dukes were usually independent but they often contracted alliances with England or France.

Their support for each nation became very important during the 14th century, because the English kings then started to claim the French throne. The Montforts won in and enjoyed a period of total independence until the end of the Hundred Years' War, because France was weakened and stopped sending royal envoys to the Court of Brittany.

However, Brittany lost the Mad War against France in , mostly because of its internal divisions which were exacerbated by the corruption at the court of Francis II, Duke of Brittany. Indeed, some Breton lords were fighting on the French side. Nonetheless, she married the Holy Roman Emperor in , but this led to a severe crisis with France. He eventually married Anne of Brittany. After he died childless, the duchess had to marry his heir and cousin Louis XII. Anne unsuccessfully tried to preserve Breton independence, but she died in and the union between the two crowns was formally carried out by Francis I in He granted several privileges to Brittany, such as exemption from the gabelle , a tax on salt which was very unpopular in France.

From the 15th to the 18th century, Brittany reached an economic golden age. Local seaports like Brest and Saint-Brieuc quickly expanded, and Lorient , first spelled "L'Orient", was founded in the 17th century. Saint-Malo was then known for its corsairs , Brest was a major base for the French Navy and Nantes flourished with the Atlantic slave trade.

On its side, the inland provided hemp ropes and canvas and linen sheets. However, Colbertism , which encouraged the creation of many factories, did not favour the Breton industry because most of the royal factories were opened in other provinces. Moreover, several conflicts between France and England led the latter to restrain its trade, and the Breton economy went into recession during the 18th century.

Two significant revolts occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries: Both arose from attempts to resist centralisation and assert Breton constitutional exceptions to tax.

The Duchy was legally abolished during the French Revolution , in , and divided into five departments. Brittany also lost all its privileges. Three years later, the area became a centre of royalist and Catholic resistance to the Revolution during the Chouannerie. During the 19th century, Brittany remained in economic recession, and many Bretons emigrated to other French regions, particularly to Paris.

This trend remained strong until the beginning of the 20th century. Nonetheless, the region was also modernising, with new roads and railways being built, and some places being industrialised. Nantes specialised in shipbuilding and food processing sugar, exotic fruits and vegetables, fish The region remained deeply Catholic, and during the Second Empire , the conservative values were strongly reasserted. When the Republic was re-established in , there were rumours that Breton troops were mistrusted and mistreated at Camp Conlie during the Franco-Prussian War because of fears that they were a threat to the Republic.

During the 19th century, the Breton language started to decline precipitously, mainly because of the Francization policy conducted under the Third Republic. On one hand, children were not allowed to speak Breton at school, and were punished by teachers if they did. Famously, signs in schools read: However, the audience of these movements remained very low and their ideas did not reach a large public until the 20th century.

The Seiz Breur movement, created in , permitted a Breton artistic revival [31] but its ties with Nazism and the collaborationism of the Breton National Party during World War II weakened Breton nationalism in the post-war period. Brittany lost , men during the First World War.

However, the areas around Saint-Nazaire and Lorient only surrendered on 10 and 11 May , several days after the German capitulation. The two port towns had been virtually destroyed by Allied air raids, like Brest and Saint-Malo , and other towns, such as Nantes and Rennes , had also suffered.

In , Brittany was legally reconstituted as the Region of Brittany , although the region excluded the ducal capital of Nantes and the surrounding area. Nevertheless, Brittany retained its cultural distinctiveness, and a new cultural revival emerged during the s and s. Bilingual schools were opened, singers started to write songs in Breton, and ecological catastrophes such as the Amoco Cadiz oil spill or the Erika oil spill and water pollution because of intensive pig farming favoured new movements to protect the natural heritage.

Brittany as a political entity disappeared in , when it was divided into five départements. The Breton départements more or less correspond to the nine Catholic dioceses that appeared at the beginning of the Middle Ages.

They were often called "pays" or "bro" "country" in French and Breton and they also served as fiscal and military districts. The historical Breton dioceses were:. During the French Revolution , four dioceses were suppressed and the five remaining ones were modified to have the same administrative borders as the départements.

Brittany has several historical capital cities. When it was an independent duchy, the Estates of Brittany , which can be compared to a parliament, met in various towns: The Court and the government were also very mobile, and each dynasty favoured its own castles and estates. All these towns except Vannes are located in Upper Brittany , thus not in the Breton speaking area. Among all these towns, only Nantes , Rennes and Vannes , which were the biggest ones, could really pretend to the capital status.

The dukes were crowned in Rennes and they had a large castle there; it was however destroyed during the 15th century. Vannes, on its side, was the seat of the Chamber of Accounts and of the Parliament until the union with France. Nantes, nicknamed "the city of the Dukes of Brittany", was also the permanent residence of the last dukes.

The Château des ducs de Bretagne still stands in the city centre. Nowadays, Rennes is the only official capital of the region of Brittany. It is also the seat of an ecclesiastical province encompassing Brittany and the Pays de la Loire region. During the French Revolution , Brittany was divided into five départements , each made up of three or four arrondissements. The arrondissements are further divided in cantons , which are themselves made up of one or several communes. The communes and the départements have a local council elected by their citizens, but arrondissements and cantons are not run by elected officials.

The cantons serve as an electoral district for the election of the département councils and arrondissements are run by a subprefect appointed by the French president. The president also appoints a prefect in each département. Because the départements are small and numerous, the French government tried to create wider regions during the 20th century.

For the Breton nationalists, it was an occasion to recreate Brittany as a political and administrative entity, but the new region had to be economically efficient. Nantes and its département , Loire-Atlantique , raised concerns because they were off-centered, more integrated with the Loire Valley than with the Breton peninsula.

The French government and local politicians also feared that Nantes , because of its population and its former Breton capital status, would have maintained a harmful competition with Rennes to get the regional institutions and investments. Several drafts for French regions had been proposed since the s, and the definitive regions were drawn in In , the regions received their present competencies, with an elected regional council. Since then, the region of Brittany has had its own council and administrative bodies.

When the region of Brittany was created, several local politicians opposed the exclusion of Loire-Atlantique , and the question still remains. The obstacles to reunification are the same as in Moreover, the Pays de la Loire region could not exist without Loire-Atlantique , because it would lose its political and economic capital.

Without Loire-Atlantique, the other départements would not form an efficient region any more, and would have to integrate neighbouring regions such as the Centre-Val de Loire and Poitou-Charentes. However, several institutions have backed the reunification, such as the regional council of Brittany since and the Loire-Atlantique council since Some politicians like Jean-Marc Ayrault , the French prime minister and former mayor of Nantes , favour instead the creation of a "Greater West region", which would encompass Brittany and the Pays de la Loire region.

Until the end of the 20th century, Brittany had been characterised by a strong Catholic and conservative influence. However, some areas such as the industrial region around Saint-Nazaire and Lorient and the surroundings of Tréguier are traditional Socialist and Communist strongholds. Left-wing parties, mainly the Socialist party and the Greens , have become more and more powerful after the s and they have formed a majority in the Regional Council of Brittany since The Loire-Atlantique and Ille-et-Vilaine councils have also been held by the left since The Socialist party has held the Côtes-d'Armor council since , and the Finistère council since On its side, Morbihan remains a right-wing stronghold.

The local parties have a very small audience, except the Union Démocratique Bretonne which has seats at the Regional Council and in other local assemblies. It advocates more autonomy for the region and its positions are very close to the Socialist parties. It also has a strong ecological orientation. The audience of far-right parties is lower in Brittany than in the rest of France. Brittany is the largest French peninsula. It is bordered to the north by the English Channel , to the south by the Bay of Biscay and the waters located between the western coast and Ushant island form the Iroise Sea.

The Breton coast is very indented, with many cliffs, rias and capes. The Gulf of Morbihan is a vast natural harbour with some forty islands that is almost a closed sea. In total, around islands lie off the mainland; the largest being Belle Île , in the south. The region is generally hilly because it corresponds to the western end of the Armorican massif , a very old range that also extends in Normandy and the Pays de la Loire region.

Because of this continuity, the Breton border with the rest of France is not marked by any strong geographical landmark, apart from the river Couesnon , which separates Brittany from Normandy. The Armorican massif reaches its maximal elevation outside of Brittany, in neighbouring Mayenne , at m, and slopes towards the west before straightening on its western extremity, with the Montagnes Noires and the Monts d'Arrée. It is closely followed by several neighbouring hills culminating at around m above sea level.

Coastal areas are usually named Armor or Arvor "by the sea" in Breton , and the inland is called Argoat "by the forest". The best soils were primitively covered by large forests which had been progressively replaced by bocage during the Middle Ages. The Breton bocage, with its small fields enclosed by thick hedgerows, has almost disappeared since the s to fit the modern agricultural needs and methods, particularly mechanisation.

Several forests still exist, such as the Paimpont forest , sometimes said to be the Arthurian Brocéliande. The poor and rocky areas are covered by large heathland and moorlands , and Brittany has several marshes , like the Brière , included in a regional natural park. Another regional park encompasses the Monts d'Arrée and the Iroise seacoast.

The Breton peninsula appeared during the Cadomian Orogeny , which formed its northern coastline, between Guingamp and Fougères. The southern part emerged during the Hercynian orogeny. At the same time, an intense volcanic activity left large quantities of granite. Between the Cadomian and Hercynian periods, the region was submerged several times and the sea left fossils and sedimentary rocks , mostly schist and sandstone. Because of the absence of limestone , soils in Brittany are usually acid.

The Armorican massif straightened and flattened several times during the formation of the Pyrenees and the Alps. Changes in sea levels and climate led to a strong erosion and to the formation of more sedimentary rocks.

Metamorphism is responsible for the distinctive local blue schist and for the rich subsoil of the Groix island , which comprises glaucophane and epidote. During the Quaternary glaciations, Brittany was covered by loess and rivers started to fill the valleys with alluvial deposits.

The valleys themselves were a result of a strong tectonic activity between the African and the Eurasian plate. The present Breton landscape did not acquired its final shape before one million years ago.

The Breton subsoil is characterised by a huge amount of fractures that form a large aquifer containing several millions square meters of water.

Brittany lies within the north temperate zone. It has a changeable, maritime climate , similar to Cornwall. Rainfall occurs regularly but sunny, cloudless days are also common.

The temperature difference between summer and winter is about fifteen degrees, but it varies depending on the proximity of the sea. The weather is generally milder on the seacoast than inland but rainfall occurs with the same intensity on both. The Monts d'Arrée , despite their low elevation, have much more rainfall than the rest of the region. The south coast, between Lorient and Pornic , enjoys more than 2, hours of sunshine per year. Brittany's wildlife is typical of France with several distinctions.

On one hand, the region, due to its long coastline, has a rich oceanic fauna, and some birds cannot be seen in other French regions. On the other hand, the species found in the inland are usually common for France, and because Brittany is a peninsula, the number of species is lower in its western extremity than in the eastern part.

A variety of seabirds can be seen close to the seaside, which is home to colonies of cormorants , gulls , razorbills , northern gannets , common murres and Atlantic puffins. Most of these birds breed on isolated islands and rocks and thus are hard to observe. The inland is home to common European species: Like Cornwall , Wales and Ireland, the waters of Brittany attract marine animals including basking sharks , grey seals , leatherback turtles , dolphins, porpoises , jellyfish , crabs and lobsters.

Bass is common along the coast, small-spotted catsharks live on the continental shelf , rattails and anglerfish populate the deep waters. River fish of note include trout , Atlantic salmon , pikes , shades and lampreys. The Breton rivers are also home to beavers and otters and to some invasive American species, such as the coypu which destroys the ecosystem and accelerated the extinction of the European mink.

Among the invertebrates, Brittany is notably home to the escargot de Quimper , the freshwater pearl mussel and the white-clawed crayfish. Today, mammals of note include roe deer , wild boar , foxes, hares and several species of bat. Brittany is widely known for the Breton horse , a local breed of draft horse , and for the Brittany gun dog. The region also has its own breeds of cattle, some of which are on the brink of extinction: The Breton forests, dunes, moorlands and marshes are home to several iconic plants, such as endemic cistus , aster and linaria varieties, the horseshoe vetch and the lotus maritimus.

Brittany has the same education system as the rest of France. As in other French regions, formal education before the 19th century was the preserve of the elite. Before , Brittany did not have a university, and Breton students had to go to Angers , Poitiers or Caen. All the traditional disciplines were taught there: During the 17th century, it had around 1, students.

It declined during the 18th century, mostly because Nantes was flourishing with the Atlantic slave trade and paid no attention to its cultural institutions. A mayor eventually asked the university to be relocated to Rennes , more devoted to culture and science, and the faculties progressively moved there after Napoleon reorganised the French education system in He created new universities and invented two secondary education institutions: A new University of Rennes was progressively recreated during the 19th century.

In the meantime, several laws were promoted to open schools, notably for girls. In , Jules Ferry succeeded in passing a law which made primary education in France free, non-clerical laïque and mandatory. Thus, free schools were opened in almost every villages of Brittany.

Jules Ferry also promoted education policies establishing French language as the language of the Republic, and mandatory education was a mean to eradicate regional languages and dialects. In Brittany, it was forbidden for the pupils to speak Breton or Gallo , and the two were strongly depreciated. Humiliating practices aimed at stamping out the Breton language and culture prevailed in state schools until the late s. They have taught a few thousand young people from elementary school to high school, and they have gained more and more fame owing to their high level of results in school exams.

Besides, Brittany, with the neighbouring Pays de la Loire region, remains a stronghold for Catholic private education with around 1, schools. During the 20th century, tertiary education was developed with the creation of the École centrale de Nantes in , the University of Nantes in , the ESC Bretagne Brest in , the University of Western Brittany in , the École nationale supérieure des télécommunications de Bretagne in and the University of Southern Brittany in Brittany, apart from some areas such as Lorient , Nantes and Saint-Nazaire , has never been heavily industrialised.

La recherche est essentiellement publique, via l' université de Bretagne-Sud , néanmoins quelques PME de recherche se sont développées en biochimie Archimex et en informatique. La ville en tant que préfecture du Morbihan abrite une multitude d'organismes économiques et financiers. Elle est le siège de la Chambre de métiers et de l'artisanat du Morbihan et d'une délégation de la Chambre de commerce et d'industrie du Morbihan.

On peut citer le Tribunal de commerce. L'économie locale bénéficie également du tourisme grâce au Golfe du Morbihan et à ses monuments historiques. Le taux de fiscalité directe locale [ 80 ] de la commune pour l'année est le suivant. Ce taux regroupe le taux de la taxe d'habitation , le taux foncier bâti, le taux non foncier bâti et le taux de la taxe professionnelle. Les revenus des professions indépendantes ont un poids plus grand, comme les retraites.

Les cadres sont proportionnellement moins nombreux à Vannes qu'à Rennes mais un peu plus d' ouvriers et surtout plus d' employés. Les artisans , commerçants , chefs d'entreprise et les retraités - aisés ou modestes - sont plus présents [ i 19 ].

Cette répartition reflète le développement touristique de la station balnéaire. Quatre axes stratégiques de développement ont été définis: Vannes est une ville internet [ 82 ] et a obtenu le label en [ 83 ] , le label en [ 84 ] , puis le label depuis [ 85 ] , [ 86 ] , [ 87 ] , [ 88 ].

Ce label récompense les villes les plus dynamiques en matière de nouvelles technologies. La ville a également été primée deux fois aux Trophées de la communication [ 89 ]. L'association VIPE a défini une liste d'entreprises qui forment la tête de proue de l'économie de l'agglomération vannetaise [ 91 ]. La présence du secteur nautique est très marquée à Vannes.

Un pôle d'excellence dans la conception et la construction nautique consacré à la compétition a été créé au sein du Parc du Golfe, un parc d'activité situé sur la rive droite du port de la ville. Parmi les entreprises implantées à Vannes, on peut noter la présence de Multiplast dont plusieurs réalisations détiennent des records mondiaux à la voile: D'autres leaders sont également présents à Vannes: Vannes est également le siège français du plus grand voilier au monde, North Sails, ainsi que de nombreux cabinets d'architectes navals.

En semaine, deux halles sont ouvertes au public: Chaque mercredi et samedi a lieu un marché dans le centre-ville de Vannes. Dans le quartier de Ménimur, un marché alimentaire a également lieu le mardi et le vendredi matin.

Le bâtiment dans lequel se situe les Halles des Lices date de Il a été restructuré au printemps pour offrir un meilleur cadre de travail aux commerçants. Il était nécessaire qu'il soit mis en conformité avec les règles sanitaires.

Sur les 4 projets réceptionnés, le jury de concours et le conseil ont retenu celui du cabinet Peiffer, Freycenon, Plays. Vannes est classée Ville d'Art et d'Histoire et abrite de nombreux monuments et lieux culturels de premier ordre.

Des guides-conférenciers organisent des visites à la découverte de l'intra-muros et du Vieux Vannes, de son patrimoine et de son histoire. Vannes compte monuments et objets classés ou inscrits à l'inventaire des monuments historiques [ 92 ]. La commune est une ville fleurie ayant obtenu quatre fleurs en [ 93 ] et la distinction Grand Prix au palmarès du concours des villes et villages fleuris et est détentrice de deux étoiles au guide Vert Michelin. À partir de , le roi Louis XIV vend morceau par morceau les éléments des remparts afin de financer ses guerres.

L'événement le plus significatif est, en , le don à la ville de Vannes des ruines du château de l'Hermine, qui servent alors au réaménagement du port et à l'entretien des bâtiments municipaux. Il faut attendre la destruction partielle en de la porte Prison, un des plus vieux accès à la vieille ville, pour voir des vannetais attachés à leur patrimoine se réunir pour former une association de défense du patrimoine en Depuis plusieurs décennies, la ville entreprend la remise en état et la mise en valeur des parties des remparts dont elle est propriétaire.

Clé de voûte du patrimoine vannetais et élément touristique par excellence, les remparts de Vannes comptent parmi les rares fortifications urbaines qui subsistent encore en Bretagne. L'enseigne Vannes et sa femme, surmontée des bustes d'un couple en pierre peinte sans mains, est un des symboles de la ville dont on ne sait pas l'origine. Cette sculpture pourrait être une enseigne commerciale, probablement l'enseigne d'un cabaret.

Cette enseigne joviale est voisine du château Gaillard , hôtel particulier, ancien siège du Parlement de Bretagne et aujourd'hui musée d'archéologie.

La ville possède un important patrimoine de maisons à pans de bois — près de [ 95 ] , [ 96 ] — plaçant la ville au deuxième rang par le nombre en Bretagne, après Rennes [réf.

Musée des Beaux-Arts de la ville depuis , la Cohue, mot d'origine bretonne coc'hug signifiant halles utilisé au Moyen Âge pour désigner les lieux de marché dans les villes, appartient au duc de Bretagne. À partir de , le parlement de Bretagne exilé à Vannes y tint séances. La Cohue accueille les États de Bretagne à dix reprises de à En , ce fut dans cet édifice que l'acte d' Union de la Bretagne à la France fut signé. Construite en par Jean de Malestroit, évêque de Saint-Brieuc et de Nantes , chancelier de Jean V depuis , cette demeure médiévale est rachetée en par le duc de Bretagne qui y installe les États de Bretagne.

C'est dans cette cour souveraine que les vassaux du duc votent les impôts. En , François II confie le rôle des États dans les contentieux à une cour de justice, le Parlement de Bretagne qui siège également à Vannes. En , la Société polymathique du Morbihan rachète le Château Gaillard et le confie à la municipalité vannetaise en afin de créer un musée d'Histoire et d'Archéologie qui permet la conservation et la présentation au public de ses collections.

Les pierres du château servent alors aux réparations des bâtiments dont la ville avait la charge, ainsi qu'à la construction des quais du port. Remplaçant une mairie ancienne et en mauvais état, l'hôtel de ville de Vannes est un projet du maire républicain Émile Burgault qui en établit les premiers fondements. C'est quarante ans plus tard que celui-ci sera réalisé.

Érigé sur la place du marché, cet hôtel de ville voulu par les républicains après leur victoire sur les monarchistes en est le triomphe des idées républicaines.

Bâti sur les plans de l'architecte Amand Charier , fils de Marius Charier, l'hôtel de ville de style de la Renaissance italienne est encadré par deux pavillons. Sa façade principale s'orne d'un frontispice comportant une horloge, et, au fronton, le blason de la ville. Un grand campanile à carillon le surmonte, rappel du beffroi d'autrefois. La façade est particulièrement travaillée: Inaugurée le 23 août sous Napoléon III , la nouvelle préfecture du Morbihan est construite par l'architecte départemental Émile Amé sur le site de l'ancien couvent des jacobins tout près du quartier Saint-Patern.

Le décor du fronton fait référence à l'Empire aigle impérial et à l'histoire bretonne avec les représentations de Nominoé , comte de Vannes et d' Alain Barbe-Torte , deux héros de l'indépendance bretonne. L'hôtel de la préfecture est entouré d'un parc de cinq hectares.

La plus grande partie est composée d'un jardin à l'anglaise dessiné en par Louis-Sulpice Varé , architecte-paysagiste de Paris, auteur du bois de Boulogne.

Cet Hôtel particulier en forme de L, a sa façade principale sur la rue et une aile en retour au sud. Un jardin à la française occupe les arrières de l'Hôtel. Il fut construit vers par Raymond le Doulx, chanoine de la cathédrale de Vannes originaire de Bordeaux.

À la Révolution, il est saisi à Armand de Gouvello, parti en émigration, et, en , l'hôtel de Limur est le siège d'une commission militaire chargée de juger les prisonniers du Débarquement de Quiberon. L'hôtel est ensuite la propriété de Mahé de Villeneuve, maire sous le Consulat et l'Empire, puis de Joseph-François Danet, receveur général du département. En , la ville projette d'en faire sa mairie mais le projet est avorté. Jusqu'en , la famille de Limur demeure dans l'Hôtel, date à laquelle la ville de Vannes en devient propriétaire.

Le musée des Beaux-Arts aujourd'hui situé à La Cohue y emménage de à Classé monument historique en , l'Hôtel de Limur connaît une restauration complète depuis Elle accueille entre ses murs des concerts et des expositions.

La première cathédrale de Vannes fut détruite en lors des invasions normandes en Bretagne. Une nouvelle cathédrale fut construite vers par l'évêque Judicaël et son frère Geoffroi I er , duc de Bretagne, dans un style roman mais on ignore si c'est au même emplacement. Faite de granit et continuellement modifiée par l'addition de nouvelles structures, la cathédrale est un édifice extrêmement composite.

Elle est édifiée grâce aux offrandes des pèlerins venus se recueillir sur le tombeau du saint que le pape Calixte III vient de canoniser. De cette époque datent la nef , le transept et le porche du croisillon nord. Ce porche comprend, suivant la coutume bretonne, douze niches destinées à recevoir les statues des douze apôtres. La tour nord est la principale structure héritée de l'ancienne construction romane.

L'édifice est reconstruit au siècle suivant et est pendant tout le Moyen Âge une importante étape de pèlerinage. Saint Patern , premier évêque attesté de l' évêché de Vannes est un des sept saints fondateurs de Bretagne. Ses reliques, conservées à Vannes, attirent la foule des pèlerins du Tro Breizh. Le clergé de Saint Patern et les chanoines de la cathédrale se disputent le droit de présenter les reliques, de recevoir les vénérations, et donc les offrandes.

Les fidèles de la paroisse de Saint Patern défendent leurs droits contre les chanoines aidés par des sergents du duc. Les paroissiens font le guet et s'enferment dans l'église à l'arrivée des partisans des chanoines. Le clergé recommande cependant aux fidèles de jeter les offrandes par les fenêtres de l'église.

L'affaire est réglée par l'intervention du clergé de Rome. L'église romane fut victime des tempêtes en - L'édifice actuel a été reconstruit dès sur les plans de l'architecte vannetais Olivier Delourme. Le grand escalier, la tour de granit et sa lanterne sont commencés en , mais la flèche ne peut être achevée qu'en De janvier à mars , l'église connaît une restauration complète dans le style baroque d'origine: Inscrite aux monuments historiques depuis le 29 septembre , la chapelle, dépendant du collège Jules-Simon, fut construite de à sur les plans du frère Charles Turmel , architecte de la Compagnie de Jésus.

La chapelle est inspiré des modèles baroques italiens et représentative du style jésuite de l'époque. Élevée alors que la ville connaît un important essor religieux avec l'installation de nombreuses communautés et la construction de couvents, maisons de retraite ou chapelles, la chapelle Saint-Yves est édifiée sur un soubassement en granit. Catherine de Francheville , mécène, fait inscrire sur le linteau du portail Fundavit eam Altissimus C'est le Très Haut qui a construit cette chapelle.

Ce retable aux colonnes de marbre noir à chapiteaux corinthiens est doté d'ailes dont les niches sont meublées de deux statues. La chapelle est actuellement désaffectée et fermée au public, mais des projets de réhabilitation sont régulièrement évoqués [ ] , [ ].

Afin de faciliter le traitement de l'information sous une forme automatisée, on utilise pour Vannes la chaîne de caractères codifiées VA, selon la liste des quartiers maritimes. Ce bateau dont le nom fait référence au grand cormoran , est un navire de pêche de type caseyeur spécialisé dans le ramassage des langoustes. C'est un voilier en bois de type sloop construit en au chantier Belbehoc'h de Crozon pour un patron-pêcheur de l' île de Sein. C'est ainsi que, le 26 juin [ ] , Pierre Couillandre et vingt-sept Sénans s'embarquent pour l'Angleterre.

Île-de-Sein recevra pour son attitude durant cette période la médaille de la libération [ ]. En , il est racheté par le Musée de la résistance bretonne de Saint-Marcel [ ]. Après sa restauration en , il obtient son classement aux monuments historiques en Géré par une association loi de , il organise des voyages en mer dans un but éducatif. Son port d'attache reste Vannes bien que son immatriculation soit alréenne AY Ce bateau est un sinago , dernier bateau de pêche de ce type construit en Il appartient à l'association Les Amis du Sinagot [ ] de Vannes depuis Construit en au chantier Querrien au Bono , il a été lancé sous le nom de Solveig.

Le sinago est une chaloupe de pêche à deux mâts, appelé avant chaloupe de Séné commune du golfe du Morbihan. Il porte deux voiles au tiers, couleur rouge brique. Sa coque est en chêne, passée au coaltar. Pendant longtemps, Vannes a été considérée comme étant une enclave française en terre bretonne. Aujourd'hui, la culture bretonne s'exprime pleinement dans la cité. Lors de l' émigration des Bretons en Armorique, Vannes constituait un îlot gallo-romain, qui influença localement le breton par un petit nombre d'emprunts au roman.

Par la suite, elle se bretonnisa à la fin du haut Moyen Âge et demeura longtemps un bastion du breton alors que Saint-Brieuc par exemple, basculait au français et influençait progressivement ses environs. Lors de la réouverture du Palais des Arts , la ville a symboliquement dénommé le théâtre: Vannes est une ville pionnière dans le renouveau de la culture bretonne.

Vannes dispose au sein de son centre historique de deux musées classés musées de France. Ce musée consacré à l'histoire du Morbihan accueille les collections de la Société polymathique du Morbihan , collections remontant à la préhistoire. Le musée est très riche en objets préhistoriques provenant, pour la plupart, des premières fouilles des mégalithes du Morbihan: Carnac , Locmariaquer , presqu'île de Rhuys , qui permirent de mettre au jour de très belles pièces.

Le principal complexe accueillant les concerts, les salons et les congrès, se nomme le Chorus. Situé sur un terrain de six hectares au sein du parc du Golfe, un parc d'activité du sud-ouest de la ville, le Chorus est un complexe pluri-fonctionnel. Un autre complexe, l'Echonova, lieu de musiques actuelles de l'agglomération vannetaise inauguré en , est situé sur le territoire de la ville voisine de Saint-Avé [ ].

Les pièces théâtrales, quant à elles, sont représentées au théâtre Anne de Bretagne [ s 11 ] , théâtre localisé dans le Palais des Arts et des Congrès. Enfin, Vannes accueille le siège de l'association Motocultor Fest Prod, qui organise divers concerts à vannes même, et surtout chaque mois d'août le Motocultor Festival dans des communes limitrophes de Vannes par manque de terrains disponibles sur la commune de Vannes.

Depuis , Le Ker, un parc à thème à ouvert. Ce musée se consacre à l'histoire bretonne à partir de la Préhistoire et jusqu'à la bataille des Vénètes qui opposa les Celtes aux armées de Jules César [ ]. Le cinéma apparaît dès à Vannes. Les premières projections des films produits par les frères Lumières se font sous chapiteau ou bien alors au théâtre de la Cohue et dans les locaux du patronage Saint-François qui deviendra le cinéma de la Garenne. En , Vannes dispose de deux cinémas pour un total de quatorze salles de cinéma dont:.

Le premier cinéma vannetais est créé en par Robert Damilot, un décorateur parisien. Le cinéma propose un orchestre, un balcon et un promenoir. L'ouverture du Palais des Arts compromet un projet de programmation de spectacles autres que cinématographiques.

Le cinéma ferme ses portes en faisant place à un complexe immobilier qui intègre la façade repeinte et entretenue.

La Soredic , propriétaire du cinéma en , en fait un complexe de trois salles.

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