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A general measure of magnetic trapping in fusion is the beta ratio:. Le service de matchmaking offre à ses clients des tests de la personnalité , parfois d'une centaine de pages, et suggère d'autres membres avec lesquels ils sont les plus à même de former un couple harmonieux.

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Si les sites de rencontre généralistes proposent parfois à ses membres une liste de célibataires a priori compatibles au vu de ce qu'ils ont rempli dans leur profil ASV pour Age-Sexe-Ville, centres d'intérêts etc.

Les sites de rencontres par affinités sur eDarling. Le service de matchmaking offre à ses clients des tests de la personnalité , parfois d'une centaine de pages, et suggère d'autres membres avec lesquels ils sont les plus à même de former un couple harmonieux. D'après cette dernière, il existerait schématiquement quatre types de personnalité: Selon les études menées par la scientifique, les couples susceptibles de bien fonctionner seraient les couples aventurier-aventurier, constructeur-constructeur et dirigeant-négociateur ces deux profils se complétant [ 12 ].

Ces sites sont spécialisés pour les personnes de gauche Gauche-Rencontre. En Amérique, il existe également des sites de rencontres destinés aux libertariens RonPaulSingles. Les utilisateurs peuvent identifier et contacter ceux qui écoutent les mêmes titres qu'eux. Y est également proposé un service de matchmaking: Il est fait référence ici aux sites de rencontres spécialisés par sous-culture ou centre d'intérêt:.

Il s'agit des sites de rencontres qui fondent la mise en relation des partenaires sur l' astrologie occidentale Love-Attraction. Le site américain Tawkify. Il convient de bien distinguer les sites de rencontres élitistes des sites d'agences matrimoniales élitistes Elite-Connexion.

Sur ce site, où par ailleurs l'inscription fonctionne par cooptation, la sélection à l'entrée porte moins sur la situation sociale que sur le sérieux des célibataires dans leur démarche de recherche [ 81 ]. Si les sites généralistes sont destinés aux célibataires, d'autres sont destinés aux personnes mariées infidele. Certains sites de rencontres sont par ailleurs destinés aux polyamoureux [ 89 ] PolyMatchMaker. Le mariage est cependant également mis en avant sur des sites de rencontre avec une femme d'Europe de l'Est RussianHug.

Notons en outre que IdontWantDowry. Certains sites mettent en avant la volonté de fonder une famille sans pour autant évoquer le mariage: Il est des sites qui permettent d'entretenir une correspondance avec une personne en prison: Sites de rencontres pour libertins YesMessenger.

Sites de rencontres pour BDSM ou fétichistes: Sites de rencontres pour ABDL [ ]: Sites de rencontres pour femme cougar et toy boy [ 85 ]: Sites de rencontres pour homme puma et toy girl: Sites de rencontres pour sugar mama [ ] et gigolo: Pour les lesbiennes, il existe SeekingArrangement.

Bumble dans le monde [ ] , [ 5 ]. Il existe des sites spécialisés, que l'on soit beau BeautifulPeople. Certains sites sont spécialisés dans les rencontres pour les personnes porteuses d'une MST Rencontre-Sero. D'autres sites sont destinés aux personnes handicapées Idylive. Il existe également des sites de rencontres destinées aux personnes souffrant de troubles mentaux , comme la schizophrénie , le trouble bipolaire , les troubles obsessionnels compulsifs TOC , les troubles de la personnalité , les troubles de stress post-traumatique TSPT , les troubles dissociatifs ou les troubles des comportements alimentaires TCA NoLongerLonely.

En France, le site TrisoMeet. Des sites sont spécialisés dans les rencontres pour adolescents [ ] , d'autres pour seniors Quintonic. Certains sites se spécialisent par région géographique. C'est le cas en France du site "peuplade. Le site américain MeetAtTheAirport. Les sites de rencontres se différencient selon le mode de rencontre auquel ils invitent les utilisateurs.

Il peut y avoir comme préalable à la rencontre une première prise de contact en ligne online dating classique, mobile dating , sites de rencontres épistolaires, card dating , virtual darting ou pas slow dating , group dating , speed dating , blind dating. La fixation du RDV peut-être directe online dating classique, mobile dating ou intermédiée rencontre coachée , online matchmaking , speed dating , blind dating , slow dating , group dating , charity dating.

Après le développement du Web participatif dans les années , c'est l'essor du Web mobile dans les années qui est venu stimuler le marché de la rencontre. Les sites de rencontres traditionnels comme Badoo , Plenty Of Fish , Zoosk , Lovoo ou OkCupid proposent une version mobile de leur plateforme ou une application à télécharger, à l'instar des nouveaux acteurs exclusivement sur smartphone: Tinder généraliste , Grindr gay , SportMeUp [ ] sportifs.

Le mobile dating offre comme fonctionnalité l'échange de messages instantanés et de photos mais aussi et surtout la géolocalisation afin que les célibataires à proximité puissent se mettre en relation [ ].

À la différence d'un site de rencontre classique, un service de matchmaking est proposé sur eDarling. Ces sites de rencontres par affinité se distinguent des sites d'agence matrimoniale, où cette dernière prend le soin de rencontrer chacun des célibataires avant de les mettre en relation. Notons néanmoins que la distinction n'est pas toujours évidente: Par ailleurs, les sites comme QuoiMaGueule.

Le speed dating consiste à faire se rencontrer des personnes préalablement sélectionnées selon des critères spécifiques pour une durée courte typiquement sept rendez-vous de sept minutes chacun [ ]. Parmi les sites organisateurs faisant le plus d'audience [ 5 ] , on compte LeSpeedDating.

Les rencontres de ce type peuvent avoir lieu en groupe, autour d'un repas par exemple aux États-Unis, 8at8. Ce mode de rencontre, particulièrement développé au Japon, s'apparente à un mélange de blind dating rencontre entre célibataires et de slow dating sortie en groupe. Le professeur Michael I. Norton a affirmé au cours des années que la rencontre virtuelle pourrait apporter un plus dans l'évaluation de sa compatibilité avec l'autre [ ]. En France, citons par exemple l'application Come in My World d' Orange , présentée comme un mélange du site de rencontres Meetic et du métavers Second Life [ ] , [ ].

Il est des sites qui proposent de réaliser la rencontre sur un mode épistolaire EcrisLeMoi. Les sites en question CheekD. Cette personne, à l'aide de l'identifiant inscrit sur la carte, va pouvoir consulter en ligne le message qui lui est adressé invitation à un rencard, déclaration.

Ce mode d'approche présente l'avantage pour l'abonné de ne pas être cantonné dans ses choix aux personnes inscrites sur le site de rencontres. Sur le modèle du charity dating où une célébrité vend aux enchères caritatives une rencontre avec elle [ ] , [ ] , le site biélorusse MaeSens.

On peut préférer prendre le temps de se rencontrer dans la vie réelle plutôt que derrière un ordinateur. Avec un grand nombre de types de sortie proposée exposition , concert , théâtre , randonnée , restaurant , soirée dansante , karaoké , café philo etc. Les sites de sorties peuvent par ailleurs être orientés rencontres amoureuses: En France, le site RandoCelibat.

Certains sites proposent de faire des rencontres au cours d'activités sportives: Le site d'échange linguistique PolyglotClub. On peut s'y inscrire également pour participer à des soirées polyglottes [ ]. Certains sites sont spécialisés dans les voyages entre célibataires CPourNous. Certains mettent l'accent sur les échanges interculturels: La rencontre d'inconnus par ces sites implique une exposition à des dangers plus ou moins importants.

Les utilisateurs de sites de rencontres s'exposent à une série d'escroqueries qui font d'ailleurs l'objet de pétitions [ ]. Des travaux ont été menés sur la véracité des profils déclarés sur les sites de rencontres [ ]. Ces études ont par exemple trouvé des différences dans le genre des personnes, les hommes mentant plus sur leur taille et les femmes sur leur poids [ ]. Cependant, de nombreux profils faux ou fantaisistes sont présents sur le site, certains profils sont laissés à l'abandon parfois depuis 5 ans [ ].

In , the Japanese tokamak, JT was completed. In , the T a Soviet tokamak was completed. It was the first industrial fusion reactor to use superconducting magnets to control the plasma. These were Helium cooled. In , Pons and Fleischmann submitted papers to the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry claiming that they had observed fusion in a room temperature device and disclosing their work in a press release. Hopes fell when replication failures were weighed in view of several reasons cold fusion is not likely to occur, the discovery of possible sources of experimental error, and finally the discovery that Fleischmann and Pons had not actually detected nuclear reaction byproducts.

A second DOE review, convened in to look at new research, reached conclusions similar to the first. In , Martin Peng of ORNL proposed [] an alternate arrangement of the magnet coils that would greatly reduce the aspect ratio while avoiding the erosion issues of the compact tokamak: Instead of wiring each magnet coil separately, he proposed using a single large conductor in the center, and wiring the magnets as half-rings off of this conductor. What was once a series of individual rings passing through the hole in the center of the reactor was reduced to a single post, allowing for aspect ratios as low as 1.

However, it was being proposed during a period when US fusion research budgets were being dramatically scaled back. ORNL was provided with funds to develop a suitable central column built out of a high-strength copper alloy called "Glidcop". However, they were unable to secure funding to build a demonstration machine, "STX".

One way to do this quickly would be to convert a spheromak machine to the Spherical tokamak layout. Several parts of the machine were recycled from earlier projects, while others were loaned from other labs, including a 40 keV neutral beam injector from ORNL. In , a major article was published in Physics Today by Robert McCory at the Laboratory for laser energetics outlying the current state of ICF and advocating for a national ignition facility.

During this time a number of ICF subsystems were developing, including target manufacturing, cryogenic handling systems, new laser designs notably the NIKE laser at NRL and improved diagnostics like time of flight analyzers and Thomson scattering.

Through this work and lobbying by groups like the fusion power associates and John Sethian at NRL, a vote was made in congress, authorizing funding for the NIF project in the late nineties. In the early nineties, theory and experimental work regarding fusors and polywells was published. In , William Nevins published a criticism [] arguing that the particles inside fusors and polywells would build up angular momentum , causing the dense core to degrade.

Miley at Illinois , built a small fusor that has produced neutrons using deuterium gas [] and discovered the "star mode" of fusor operation. This generates a magnetic pulse, inside a large oil tank, this strikes an array of tungsten wires called a liner.

This is MJ of injected and extracted energy. This result was possible because of the actively cooled plasma-facing components [ citation needed ].

In , JET produced a peak of In the late nineties, a team at Columbia University and MIT developed the Levitated dipole a fusion device which consisted of a superconducting electromagnet, floating in a saucer shaped vacuum chamber.

Plasma swirled around this donut and fused along the center axis. In the March 8, issue of the peer-reviewed journal Science , Rusi P. Taleyarkhan and colleagues at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL reported that acoustic cavitation experiments conducted with deuterated acetone C 3 D 6 O showed measurements of tritium and neutron output consistent with the occurrence of fusion.

This system was finished in Fast ignition showed such dramatic power savings that ICF appears to be a useful technique for energy production. There are even proposals to build an experimental facility dedicated to the fast ignition approach, known as HiPER. In April , a team from UCLA announced [] it had devised a way of producing fusion using a machine that "fits on a lab bench", using lithium tantalate to generate enough voltage to smash deuterium atoms together.

The process, however, does not generate net power see Pyroelectric fusion. Such a device would be useful in the same sort of roles as the fusor. This was the first tokamak to use superconducting magnets to generate both the toroidal and poloidal fields.

In the early s, Researchers at LANL reasoned that a plasma oscillating could be at local thermodynamic equilibrium. Greg Piefer graduated from Madison and founded Phoenix Nuclear Labs , a company that developed the fusor into a neutron source for the mass production of medical isotopes. In , Taylor Wilson achieved notoriety [] [] for achieving nuclear fusion at 14, with a homemade fusor.

The early s saw the founding of a number of privately backed fusion companies pursuing innovative approaches with the stated goal of developing commercially viable fusion power plants. In , NIF researchers conducted a series of "tuning" shots to determine the optimal target design and laser parameters for high-energy ignition experiments with fusion fuel. In early , NIF director Mike Dunne expected the laser system to generate fusion with net energy gain by the end of The facility reported that their next step involved improving the system to prevent the hohlraum from either breaking up asymmetrically or too soon.

A paper demonstrated that a dense plasma focus had achieved temperatures of 1. In October , Lockheed Martin 's Skunk Works announced the development of a high beta fusion reactor, the Compact Fusion Reactor , intending on making a megawatt prototype by and beginning regular operation by In January , the polywell was presented at Microsoft Research.

In August, , MIT announced a tokamak it named ARC fusion reactor using rare-earth barium-copper oxide REBCO superconducting tapes to produce high-magnetic field coils that it claimed produce comparable magnetic field strength in a smaller configuration than other designs.

On December 10, they successfully produced the first helium plasma, and on February 3, produced the device's first hydrogen plasma. General Fusion developed its plasma injector technology and Tri Alpha Energy constructed and operated its C-2U device. By firing particle beams at targets, many fusion reactions have been tested, while the fuels considered for power have all been light elements like the isotopes of hydrogen— protium , deuterium , and tritium. Finally, researchers hope to perform the protium and boron reaction, because it does not directly produce neutrons, though side reactions can.

This reaction is common in research, industrial and military applications, usually as a convenient source of neutrons. Deuterium is a naturally occurring isotope of hydrogen and is commonly available. The large mass ratio of the hydrogen isotopes makes their separation easy compared to the difficult uranium enrichment process. Tritium is a natural isotope of hydrogen, but because it has a short half-life of Consequently, the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle requires the breeding of tritium from lithium using one of the following reactions:.

The reactant neutron is supplied by the D-T fusion reaction shown above, and the one that has the greatest yield of energy. The reaction with 6 Li is exothermic , providing a small energy gain for the reactor.

The reaction with 7 Li is endothermic but does not consume the neutron. At least some neutron multiplication reactions are required to replace the neutrons lost to absorption by other elements.

Leading candidate neutron multiplication materials are beryllium and lead however the 7 Li reaction above also helps to keep the neutron population high.

Natural lithium is mainly 7 Li however this has a low tritium production cross section compared to 6 Li so most reactor designs use breeder blankets with enriched 6 Li. The neutron flux expected in a commercial D-T fusion reactor is about times that of current fission power reactors, posing problems for material design. After a series of D-T tests at JET , the vacuum vessel was sufficiently radioactive that remote handling was required for the year following the tests.

In a production setting, the neutrons would be used to react with lithium in the context of a breeder blanket comprising lithium ceramic pebbles or liquid lithium, in order to create more tritium. This also deposits the energy of the neutrons in the lithium, which would then be transferred to drive electrical production.

The lithium neutron absorption reaction protects the outer portions of the reactor from the neutron flux. Newer designs, the advanced tokamak in particular, also use lithium inside the reactor core as a key element of the design.

The plasma interacts directly with the lithium, preventing a problem known as "recycling". The advantage of this design was demonstrated in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment.

This is the second easiest fusion reaction, fusing two deuterium nuclei. The reaction has two branches that occur with nearly equal probability:. This reaction is also common in research. The first branch does not produce neutrons, but it does produce tritium, so that a D-D reactor will not be completely tritium-free, even though it does not require an input of tritium or lithium.

Unless the tritons can be quickly removed, most of the tritium produced would be burned before leaving the reactor, which would reduce the handling of tritium, but would produce more neutrons, some of which are very energetic. The neutron from the second branch has an energy of only 2.

When the tritons are removed quickly while allowing the 3 He to react, the fuel cycle is called "tritium suppressed fusion" [] The removed tritium decays to 3 He with a By recycling the 3 He produced from the decay of tritium back into the fusion reactor, the fusion reactor does not require materials resistant to fast Other advantages are independence from scarce [ dubious — discuss ] lithium resources and a somewhat softer neutron spectrum. The disadvantage of D-D compared to D-T is that the energy confinement time at a given pressure must be 30 times longer and the power produced at a given pressure and volume would be 68 times less.

The tritium-suppressed D-D fusion requires an energy confinement that is 10 times longer compared to D-T and a plasma temperature that is twice as high. A second-generation approach to controlled fusion power involves combining helium-3 3 He and deuterium 2 H:.

This reaction produces a helium-4 nucleus 4 He and a high-energy proton. As with the p- 11 B aneutronic fusion fuel cycle, most of the reaction energy is released as charged particles, reducing activation of the reactor housing and potentially allowing more efficient energy harvesting via any of several speculative technologies. If aneutronic fusion is the goal, then the most promising candidate may be the hydrogen-1 protium and boron reaction, which releases alpha helium particles, but does not rely on neutron scattering for energy transfer.

Under reasonable assumptions, side reactions will result in about 0. Because the confinement properties of conventional approaches to fusion such as the tokamak and laser pellet fusion are marginal, most proposals for aneutronic fusion are based on radically different confinement concepts, such as the Polywell and the Dense Plasma Focus. Results have been extremely promising:.

Any power station using hot plasma is going to have plasma facing walls. In even the simplest plasma approaches, the material will get blasted with matter and energy. This leads to a minimum list of considerations, including dealing with:.

Depending on the approach, these effects may be higher or lower than typical fission reactors like the pressurized water reactor PWR. There is also a need for materials whose primary components and impurities do not result in long-lived radioactive wastes.

For long term use, each atom in the wall is expected to be hit by a neutron and displaced about a hundred times before the material is replaced. High-energy neutrons will produce hydrogen and helium by way of various nuclear reactions that tends to form bubbles at grain boundaries and result in swelling, blistering or embrittlement.

One can choose either a low- Z material, such as graphite or beryllium , or a high- Z material, usually tungsten with molybdenum as a second choice. Use of liquid metals lithium, gallium, tin has also been proposed, e. If graphite is used, the gross erosion rates due to physical and chemical sputtering would be many meters per year, so one must rely on redeposition of the sputtered material.

The location of the redeposition will not exactly coincide with the location of the sputtering, so one is still left with erosion rates that may be prohibitive. An even larger problem is the tritium co-deposited with the redeposited graphite.

The tritium inventory in graphite layers and dust in a reactor could quickly build up to many kilograms, representing a waste of resources and a serious radiological hazard in case of an accident.

The consensus of the fusion community seems to be that graphite, although a very attractive material for fusion experiments, cannot be the primary plasma-facing material PFM in a commercial reactor.

The sputtering rate of tungsten by the plasma fuel ions is orders of magnitude smaller than that of carbon, and tritium is much less incorporated into redeposited tungsten, making this a more attractive choice. On the other hand, tungsten impurities in a plasma are much more damaging than carbon impurities, and self-sputtering of tungsten can be high, so it will be necessary to ensure that the plasma in contact with the tungsten is not too hot a few tens of eV rather than hundreds of eV.

Tungsten also has disadvantages in terms of eddy currents and melting in off-normal events, as well as some radiological issues.

Unlike nuclear fission , fusion requires extremely precise and controlled temperature, pressure and magnetic field parameters for any net energy to be produced. If a reactor suffers damage or loses even a small degree of required control, fusion reactions and heat generation would rapidly cease.

Unless they are actively refueled, the reactions will quickly end. Therefore, fusion reactors are considered immune from catastrophic meltdown. For similar reasons, runaway reactions cannot occur in a fusion reactor. The plasma is burnt at optimal conditions, and any significant change will simply quench the reactions. The reaction process is so delicate that this level of safety is inherent. In comparison, a fission reactor is typically loaded with enough fuel for several months or years, and no additional fuel is necessary to continue the reaction.

It is this large amount of fuel that gives rise to the possibility of a meltdown; nothing like this exists in a fusion reactor. In the magnetic approach, strong fields are developed in coils that are held in place mechanically by the reactor structure. Failure of this structure could release this tension and allow the magnet to "explode" outward.

The laser-driven inertial approach is generally lower-stress because of the increased size of the reaction chamber. Although failure of the reaction chamber is possible, simply stopping fuel delivery would prevent any sort of catastrophic failure.

Most reactor designs rely on liquid hydrogen as both a coolant and a method for converting stray neutrons from the reaction into tritium , which is fed back into the reactor as fuel. Hydrogen is highly flammable, and in the case of a fire it is possible that the hydrogen stored on-site could be burned up and escape. In this case, the tritium contents of the hydrogen would be released into the atmosphere, posing a radiation risk. Calculations suggest that at about 1 kilogram 2.

The likelihood of small industrial accidents, including the local release of radioactivity and injury to staff, cannot be estimated yet. These would include accidental releases of lithium or tritium or mishandling of decommissioned radioactive components of the reactor itself. A quench is an abnormal termination of magnet operation that occurs when part of the superconducting coil enters the normal resistive state. This can occur because the field inside the magnet is too large, the rate of change of field is too large causing eddy currents and resultant heating in the copper support matrix , or a combination of the two.

More rarely a defect in the magnet can cause a quench. When this happens, that particular spot is subject to rapid Joule heating from the enormous current, which raises the temperature of the surrounding regions. This pushes those regions into the normal state as well, which leads to more heating in a chain reaction.

The entire magnet rapidly becomes normal this can take several seconds, depending on the size of the superconducting coil. This is accompanied by a loud bang as the energy in the magnetic field is converted to heat, and rapid boil-off of the cryogenic fluid. The abrupt decrease of current can result in kilovolt inductive voltage spikes and arcing. Permanent damage to the magnet is rare, but components can be damaged by localized heating, high voltages, or large mechanical forces.

In practice, magnets usually have safety devices to stop or limit the current when the beginning of a quench is detected. If a large magnet undergoes a quench, the inert vapor formed by the evaporating cryogenic fluid can present a significant asphyxiation hazard to operators by displacing breathable air. A large section of the superconducting magnets in CERN 's Large Hadron Collider unexpectedly quenched during start-up operations in , necessitating the replacement of a number of magnets.

As the dipole bending magnets are connected in series, each power circuit includes individual magnets, and should a quench event occur, the entire combined stored energy of these magnets must be dumped at once. This energy is transferred into dumps that are massive blocks of metal which heat up to several hundreds of degrees Celsius—because of resistive heating—in a matter of seconds.

Although undesirable, a magnet quench is a "fairly routine event" during the operation of a particle accelerator. The natural product of the fusion reaction is a small amount of helium , which is completely harmless to life.

Of more concern is tritium , which, like other isotopes of hydrogen, is difficult to retain completely. During normal operation, some amount of tritium will be continually released. Although tritium is volatile and biologically active, the health risk posed by a release is much lower than that of most radioactive contaminants, because of tritium's short half-life The large flux of high-energy neutrons in a reactor will make the structural materials radioactive.

The radioactive inventory at shut-down may be comparable to that of a fission reactor, but there are important differences. The half-life of the radioisotopes produced by fusion tends to be less than those from fission, so that the inventory decreases more rapidly. Unlike fission reactors, whose waste remains radioactive for thousands of years, most of the radioactive material in a fusion reactor would be the reactor core itself, which would be dangerous for about 50 years, and low-level waste for another By years the material would have the same radiotoxicity as coal ash.

Additionally, the choice of materials used in a fusion reactor is less constrained than in a fission design, where many materials are required for their specific neutron cross-sections. This allows a fusion reactor to be designed using materials that are selected specifically to be "low activation", materials that do not easily become radioactive. Vanadium , for example, would become much less radioactive than stainless steel.

Carbon fiber materials are also low-activation, as well as being strong and light, and are a promising area of study for laser-inertial reactors where a magnetic field is not required. In general terms, fusion reactors would create far less radioactive material than a fission reactor, the material it would create is less damaging biologically, and the radioactivity "burns off" within a time period that is well within existing engineering capabilities for safe long-term waste storage.

Although fusion power uses nuclear technology, the overlap with nuclear weapons would be limited. A huge amount of tritium could be produced by a fusion power station; tritium is used in the trigger of hydrogen bombs and in a modern boosted fission weapon , but it can also be produced by nuclear fission.

The energetic neutrons from a fusion reactor could be used to breed weapons-grade plutonium or uranium for an atomic bomb for example by transmutation of U to Pu , or Th to U A study conducted assessed the risk of three scenarios: Another study concludes that "[.. Large-scale reactors using neutronic fuels e. ITER and thermal power production turbine based are most comparable to fission power from an engineering and economics viewpoint.

Both fission and fusion power stations involve a relatively compact heat source powering a conventional steam turbine-based power station, while producing enough neutron radiation to make activation of the station materials problematic.

The main distinction is that fusion power produces no high-level radioactive waste though activated station materials still need to be disposed of. There are some power station ideas that may significantly lower the cost or size of such stations; however, research in these areas is nowhere near as advanced as in tokamaks.

Fusion power commonly proposes the use of deuterium , an isotope of hydrogen, as fuel and in many current designs also use lithium. Lithium from sea water would last 60 million years, however, and a more complicated fusion process using only deuterium would have fuel for billion years.

While fusion power is still in early stages of development, substantial sums have been and continue to be invested in research. Indeed, the size of the investments and time frame of the expected results mean that fusion research is almost exclusively publicly funded, while research in other forms of energy can be done by the private sector.

In spite of that, a number of start-up companies active in the field of fusion power have managed to attract private money. Fusion power would provide more energy for a given weight of fuel than any fuel-consuming energy source currently in use, [] and the fuel itself primarily deuterium exists abundantly in the Earth's ocean: Despite being technically non-renewable , fusion power like fission power using breeder reactors and reprocessing has many of the benefits of renewable energy sources such as being a long-term energy supply and emitting no greenhouse gases or air pollution as well as some of the benefits of the resource-limited energy sources as hydrocarbons and nuclear fission without reprocessing.

Like these currently dominant energy sources, fusion could provide very high power-generation density and uninterrupted power delivery because it is not dependent on the weather , unlike wind and solar power. Another aspect of fusion energy is that the cost of production does not suffer from diseconomies of scale. The cost of water and wind energy, for example, goes up as the optimal locations are developed first, while further generators must be sited in less ideal conditions.

With fusion energy the production cost will not increase much even if large numbers of stations are built, because the raw resource seawater is abundant and widespread. Some problems that are expected to be an issue in this century, such as fresh water shortages , can alternatively be regarded as problems of energy supply.

For example, in desalination stations, seawater can be purified through distillation or reverse osmosis. Nonetheless, these processes are energy intensive. Even if the first fusion stations are not competitive with alternative sources, fusion could still become competitive if large-scale desalination requires more power than the alternatives are able to provide. A scenario has been presented of the effect of the commercialization of fusion power on the future of human civilization.

Using this as the starting point and the history of the uptake of nuclear fission reactors as a guide, the scenario depicts a rapid take up of nuclear fusion energy starting after the middle of this century. Fusion power could be used in interstellar space , where solar energy is not available.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Timeline of nuclear fusion. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Shiva laser, , the largest ICF laser system built in the seventies.

Magnetic mirrors suffered from end losses, requiring high power, complex magnetic designs, such as the baseball coil pictured here. The Novette target chamber metal sphere with diagnostic devices protruding radially , which was reused from the Shiva project and two newly built laser chains visible in background.

Inertial confinement fusion implosion on the Nova laser during the s was a key driver of fusion development. Mockup of a gold-plated hohlraum designed for use in the National Ignition Facility.

Starting in , a growing number of amateurs have been able to fuse atoms using homemade fusors , shown here. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Energy portal Nuclear technology portal.

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